Quality of care indicators in the MAnageMent of BlOOdstream infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae (MAMBOO-E study): state of the art and research agenda

Maddalena Giannella, Pietro Malosso, Luigia Scudeller, Linda Bussini, Chiara Rebuffi, Milo Gatti, Michele Bartoletti, Stefano Ianniruberto, Livia Pancaldi, Renato Pascale, Sara Tedeschi, Pierluigi Viale, Mical Paul

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: The impact on outcome of five interventions was reviewed in order to investigate the state of the art for management of Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infection (E-BSI). Methods: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies published from January 2008 to March 2019 in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Populations consisted of patients with E-BSI. Interventions were as follows: (i) performance of imaging to assess BSI source and/or complications; (ii) follow-up blood cultures (FU-BCs); (iii) use of loading dose followed by extended/continuous infusion (E/CI) of β-lactams; (iv) duration of treatment (short- versus long-term); and (v) infectious diseases (ID) consultation. Patients without intervention were considered as controls. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. RoB 2.0 and ROBINS-I tools were used for bias assessment. Results: No study was eligible for interventions i, iii and v. For FU-BCs, one observational study including 901 patients with E-BSI was considered. Intervention consisted of repeating BCs within 2–7 days after index BCs. All-cause 30-day mortality was 14.2% (35/247) in the intervention group versus 14.7% (96/654) in the control group. For short treatment duration, two RCTs and six observational studies were included comprising 4473 patients with E-BSI. All-cause mortality was similar in the short and long treatment groups (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.83–1.44). Conclusion: Of the assessed interventions, only short treatment duration in non-immunocompromised patients with E-BSI is supported by current data. Studies investigating the use of systematic imaging, FU-BCs, E/CI β-lactams and ID consultation in patients with E-BSI are needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106320
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infection
  • Extended/prolonged infusion of β-lactams
  • Follow-up blood cultures
  • ID consultation
  • Imaging study
  • Treatment duration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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