Quality of life, mood and seizure control in patients with brain tumor related epilepsy treated with lacosamide as add-on therapy: A prospective explorative study with a historical control group

M. Maschio, A. Zarabla, A. Maialetti, A. Fabi, A. Vidiri, V. Villani, D. Giannarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE) is often drug resistant and patients can be forced to take polytherapy that can adversely affect their quality of life (QoL). Lacosamide (LCM) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) used as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization, with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile that seems to be effective and well tolerated. Therefore it represents a possible therapeutic choice for patients with BTRE. We propose a prospective study with a historical control group to evaluate the effect of LCM as add-on therapy on seizure control and quality of life in patients with BTRE. This study has been designed to test the superiority of Lacosamide over Levetiracetam as an add-on. We compared a prospective cohort of 25 patients treated with Lacosamide with a historical control group (n=19) treated with Levetiracetam as an add-on. METHODS: We recruited 25 adult patients (M 18, F 7; mean age 41.9) affected by BTRE with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures treated with AED polytherapy. We added LCM as an add-on. Patients were evaluated at baseline, after 3months and at 6months. This population has been compared with a historical control group of 19 BTRE adult patients (M 13, F 6; median age 48.0, range: 28-70) with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures treated with LEV as add-on. The patients underwent QoL, mood and adverse events tests (Adverse Event Profile-AEP) and evaluation of seizure frequency. RESULTS: Twelve patients had high grade gliomas, and thirteen had low grade gliomas. During follow-up, thirteen patients underwent chemotherapy, three radiotherapy and five patients had disease progression. Nine patients had simple partial seizures, eight had complex partial seizures, and eight had secondary generalized seizures. Fifteen patients were in monotherapy and ten in polytherapy with AEDs. LCM was added up to reach the maximum dosage of 400mg/die (mean final dose 300mg/die). Four patients dropped out due to poor compliance and 1 for inefficacy. In the historical control group treated with LEV (mean final dose 2000mg/die) 12 patients had high-grade gliomas, and 7 had low grade gliomas. Thirteen patients were in monotherapy and 6 in polytherapy with AEDs. In the 22 patients evaluable of 25 patients treated with LCM, we observed at final follow-up 7 patients seizure free, 12 with a significant reduction of seizures>/=50%, 2 stable and 1 patient with number of seizures increased. Mean seizure frequency at baseline compared with baseline period: the mean number of seizures significantly decreased from baseline (9.4) to final follow-up (1.2) (P=0.005). The Responder Rate was 86.4%. Comparing responder rate of 22 evaluable patients with LCM with responder rate of 19 patients with LEV we didn't observe significant differences (p=0.31). In our patients treated with LCM we didn't observe significant difference at 3 and 6months in QoL tests results; we observe a significant reduction in the mean score of Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) and Barthel Index (BI) between baseline and 6months of follow-up (KPS p=0.003; BI p=0.007). No clinical side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Comparing the LCM with the historical group treated with LEV in add-on, we observed that LCM seems to have a higher clinical efficacy than LEV. In our patients, we did not observe any significant changes in QoL tests, indicating stability in all quality of life domains explored, despite the objective worsening in their functional status. Although this is a small series with a relatively short follow-up, our data indicates that LCM in add-on in patients with BTRE appears to be as effective as LEV in add-on, without impact on mood and quality of life.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-89
Number of pages7
JournalEpilepsy and Behavior
Volume73
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2017

Keywords

  • Brain tumor-related epilepsy
  • Lacosamide
  • Levetiracetam
  • New antiepileptic drugs
  • Quality of life
  • Seizures

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