This collaborative initiative aimed to provide recommendations on the use of polyclonal antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A comprehensive review of articles released up to October, 2018 was performed as a source of scientific evidence. Fourteen clinically relevant key questions to the domains indication, administration, and post-transplant management were developed and recommendations were produced using the Delphi technique involving a Panel of 14 experts. ATG/ATLG was strongly recommended as part of myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to matched or mismatched unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood allogeneic HSCT in malignant diseases to prevent severe acute and chronic GvHD. ATG/ATLG was also recommended prior to HLA-identical sibling peripheral HSCT with good but lesser bulk of evidence. In reduced intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens, ATG/ATLG was deemed appropriate to reduce the incidence of acute and chronic GvHD, but a higher risk of relapse should be taken into account. Recommendations regarding dose, application, and premedication were also provided as well as post-transplant infectious prophylaxis and vaccination. Overall, these recommendations can be used for a proper and safe application of polyclonal ATG/ATLG to prevent GvHD after allogeneic HSCT.
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