BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate radiation exposure in patients with complete portal vein thrombosis (CPVT) or portal cavernoma (PC) undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation using real-time ultrasound guidance for portal vein targeting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single institution retrospective analysis. Between August 2009 and September 2018, TIPS was attempted in 49 patients with CPVT or PC. Radiation exposure (dose area product [DAP], air KERMA (AK) and fluoroscopy time [FT]), technical success, clinical success, complications and survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: In total, 29 patients had CPVT and 20 patients had PC. 41/49 patients had cirrhosis. TIPS indications were refractory ascites (n = 25), variceal bleeding (n = 16) and other (n = 8). TIPS was successfully placed in 94% (46/49) of patients via a transjugular approach alone (n = 40), a transjugular/transhepatic approach (n = 5) and a transjugular/transsplenic approach (n = 1). Median DAP was 261 Gy * cm2 (range 29-950), median AK was 0.2 Gy (range 0.05-0.5), and median FT was 28.2 min (range 7.7-93.7). Mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased from 16.8 ± 5.1 mmHg to 7.5 ± 3.3 mmHg (P < 0.01). There were no major procedural complications. Overall clinical success was achieved in 77% of patients (mean follow-up of 21.1 months). Encephalopathy was observed in 16 patients (34%), grade II-III encephalopathy in 7 patients (15%). TIPS revision was performed in 15 patients (32%). Overall survival rate was 75%.
CONCLUSION: In our experience, the use of real-time ultrasound guidance allowed the majority of the TIPS to be performed via a transjugular approach alone with a reasonably low radiation exposure considering the high technical difficulties of the selected cohort of patients with CVPT or PC.
- Esophageal and Gastric Varices/diagnostic imaging
- Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
- Hemangioma, Cavernous/diagnostic imaging
- Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
- Middle Aged
- Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging
- Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic
- Radiation Exposure
- Retrospective Studies
- Ultrasonography, Interventional
- Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging