Radiochromic films for improved evaluation of patient dose in liver interventions

Laura Mantovani, Loredana D'Ercole, Francesco Lisciandro, Pietro Quaretti, Andrea Azzaretti, Giuseppe Rodolico, Cesare Massa Saluzzo, Angelo Spinazzola, Federico Di Maria, Andrea Ottolenghi, Federico Zappoli Thyrion, Luciano Andreucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


PURPOSE: To investigate a method for evaluation of the maximum skin dose (MSD) of radiation in patients undergoing interventional radiology procedures in the liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial embolization, portal vein embolization, and biliary interventions were the procedures considered in this study. Ninety procedures in 70 patients were studied. The complexity of the biliary interventions was taken into account during the analysis. The MSD was measured with use of GAF chromic XR type R films, whereas the dose-area product (DAP) was measured by a transmission chamber. RESULTS: The MSD was measured in a group of 19 patients. The coefficient of the interpolation line between the skin dose and the DAP (0.0051 cm -2) was determined. An approximated value of MSD from the DAP for the remaining 71 procedures was estimated by means of an interpolation line. The mean MSD in the endovascular procedures was 4.4 Gy; for the three different levels of complexity of the biliary procedures, the mean MSDs were 0.4, 1.2, and 3 Gy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Radiochromic films are an easy-to-use and efficient method for measuring skin entrance radiation dose and have the advantage of providing information on the MSD as well as the distribution of radiation to the skin. In light of these results, the authors suggest recording the dose for biliary and endovascular procedures as indicated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the United States Food and Drug Administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-862
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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