Radiographic angular measurements of the foot and ankle in weight-bearing: A literature review

Claudio Carrara, Paolo Caravaggi, Claudio Belvedere, Alberto Leardini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis and treatment of the foot and ankle, bone alignments have long been evaluated using planar radiographs in weight-bearing conditions and a large number of measurements have been reported. The present survey reviews the major radiographic angles that are currently present in the literature for a possible better comprehension and classification of them.

METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to retrieve technical and clinical papers related to these angles, and were classified based on five typologies and the three projection planes. These angles were grouped into one definition if they described similar concepts, regardless of their anatomical references and names. A corresponding original definition and diagrammatic representation are offered.

RESULTS: Thirty-one conceptual radiographic angles were identified across all descriptions from the literature: 18 in the sagittal plane, 9 in the transverse, and 4 in the coronal. Most angular measures represent relative bone orientations; absolute orientations, bone morphology and joint lines are less frequently used or reported.

CONCLUSIONS: The present survey reveals a confused scenario of angular measures, particularly in terms of anatomical references and names. It is therefore recommended to establish common relevant techniques and terminology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalFoot and Ankle Surgery
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jul 31 2019

Fingerprint

Weight-Bearing
Ankle
Names
Foot
Foot Bones
Tarsal Bones
Bone and Bones
PubMed
Terminology
Joints
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Bone alignment
  • Foot measurements
  • Radiographic angles
  • Weight-bearing
  • X-ray

Cite this

Radiographic angular measurements of the foot and ankle in weight-bearing: A literature review. / Carrara, Claudio; Caravaggi, Paolo; Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto.

In: Foot and Ankle Surgery, 31.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

@article{92b8c5cc9f1a4d3c98d15734e8a1fc09,
title = "Radiographic angular measurements of the foot and ankle in weight-bearing: A literature review",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis and treatment of the foot and ankle, bone alignments have long been evaluated using planar radiographs in weight-bearing conditions and a large number of measurements have been reported. The present survey reviews the major radiographic angles that are currently present in the literature for a possible better comprehension and classification of them.METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to retrieve technical and clinical papers related to these angles, and were classified based on five typologies and the three projection planes. These angles were grouped into one definition if they described similar concepts, regardless of their anatomical references and names. A corresponding original definition and diagrammatic representation are offered.RESULTS: Thirty-one conceptual radiographic angles were identified across all descriptions from the literature: 18 in the sagittal plane, 9 in the transverse, and 4 in the coronal. Most angular measures represent relative bone orientations; absolute orientations, bone morphology and joint lines are less frequently used or reported.CONCLUSIONS: The present survey reveals a confused scenario of angular measures, particularly in terms of anatomical references and names. It is therefore recommended to establish common relevant techniques and terminology.",
keywords = "Bone alignment, Foot measurements, Radiographic angles, Weight-bearing, X-ray",
author = "Claudio Carrara and Paolo Caravaggi and Claudio Belvedere and Alberto Leardini",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1016/j.fas.2019.07.008",
language = "English",
journal = "Foot and Ankle Surgery",
issn = "1268-7731",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Radiographic angular measurements of the foot and ankle in weight-bearing: A literature review

AU - Carrara, Claudio

AU - Caravaggi, Paolo

AU - Belvedere, Claudio

AU - Leardini, Alberto

N1 - Copyright © 2019 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/7/31

Y1 - 2019/7/31

N2 - BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis and treatment of the foot and ankle, bone alignments have long been evaluated using planar radiographs in weight-bearing conditions and a large number of measurements have been reported. The present survey reviews the major radiographic angles that are currently present in the literature for a possible better comprehension and classification of them.METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to retrieve technical and clinical papers related to these angles, and were classified based on five typologies and the three projection planes. These angles were grouped into one definition if they described similar concepts, regardless of their anatomical references and names. A corresponding original definition and diagrammatic representation are offered.RESULTS: Thirty-one conceptual radiographic angles were identified across all descriptions from the literature: 18 in the sagittal plane, 9 in the transverse, and 4 in the coronal. Most angular measures represent relative bone orientations; absolute orientations, bone morphology and joint lines are less frequently used or reported.CONCLUSIONS: The present survey reveals a confused scenario of angular measures, particularly in terms of anatomical references and names. It is therefore recommended to establish common relevant techniques and terminology.

AB - BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis and treatment of the foot and ankle, bone alignments have long been evaluated using planar radiographs in weight-bearing conditions and a large number of measurements have been reported. The present survey reviews the major radiographic angles that are currently present in the literature for a possible better comprehension and classification of them.METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to retrieve technical and clinical papers related to these angles, and were classified based on five typologies and the three projection planes. These angles were grouped into one definition if they described similar concepts, regardless of their anatomical references and names. A corresponding original definition and diagrammatic representation are offered.RESULTS: Thirty-one conceptual radiographic angles were identified across all descriptions from the literature: 18 in the sagittal plane, 9 in the transverse, and 4 in the coronal. Most angular measures represent relative bone orientations; absolute orientations, bone morphology and joint lines are less frequently used or reported.CONCLUSIONS: The present survey reveals a confused scenario of angular measures, particularly in terms of anatomical references and names. It is therefore recommended to establish common relevant techniques and terminology.

KW - Bone alignment

KW - Foot measurements

KW - Radiographic angles

KW - Weight-bearing

KW - X-ray

U2 - 10.1016/j.fas.2019.07.008

DO - 10.1016/j.fas.2019.07.008

M3 - Review article

C2 - 31402285

JO - Foot and Ankle Surgery

JF - Foot and Ankle Surgery

SN - 1268-7731

ER -