The aim of the study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of textural features extracted by dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM) images, by carrying out univariate and multivariate statistical analyses including artificial intelligence approaches. In total, 80 patients with known breast lesion were enrolled in this prospective study according to regulations issued by the local Institutional Review Board. All patients underwent dual-energy CEM examination in both craniocaudally (CC) and double acquisition of mediolateral oblique (MLO) projections (early and late). The reference standard was pathology from a surgical specimen for malignant lesions and pathology from a surgical specimen or fine needle aspiration cytology, core or Tru-Cut needle biopsy, and vacuum assisted breast biopsy for benign lesions. In total, 104 samples of 80 patients were analyzed. Furthermore, 48 textural parameters were extracted by manually segmenting regions of interest. Univariate and multivariate approaches were performed: non-parametric Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test; receiver operating characteristic (ROC), linear classifier (LDA), decision tree (DT), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), artificial neural network (NNET), and support vector machine (SVM) were utilized. A balancing approach and feature selection methods were used. The univariate analysis showed low accuracy and area under the curve (AUC) for all considered features. Instead, in the multivariate textural analysis, the best performance considering the CC view (accuracy (ACC) = 0.75; AUC = 0.82) was reached with a DT trained with leave-one-out cross-variation (LOOCV) and balanced data (with adaptive synthetic (ADASYN) function) and a subset of three robust textural features (MAD, VARIANCE, and LRLGE). The best performance (ACC = 0.77; AUC = 0.83) considering the early-MLO view was reached with a NNET trained with LOOCV and balanced data (with ADASYN function) and a subset of ten robust features (MEAN, MAD, RANGE, IQR, VARIANCE, CORRELATION, RLV, COARSNESS, BUSYNESS, and STRENGTH). The best performance (ACC = 0.73; AUC = 0.82) considering the late-MLO view was reached with a NNET trained with LOOCV and balanced data (with ADASYN function) and a subset of eleven robust features (MODE, MEDIAN, RANGE, RLN, LRLGE, RLV, LZLGE, GLV_GLSZM, ZSV, COARSNESS, and BUSYNESS). Multivariate analyses using pattern recognition approaches, considering 144 textural features extracted from all three mammographic projections (CC, early MLO, and late MLO), optimized by adaptive synthetic sampling and feature selection operations obtained the best results (ACC = 0.87; AUC = 0.90) and showed the best performance in the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions.
- Artificial intelligence
- Contrast-enhanced digital mammography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry