RAG gene defects at the verge of immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation

Anna Villa, Luigi D. Notarangelo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Mutations of the recombinase activating genes (RAG) in humans underlie a broad spectrum of clinical and immunological phenotypes that reflect different degrees of impairment of T- and B-cell development and alterations of mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance. Recent studies have shown that this phenotypic heterogeneity correlates, albeit imperfectly, with different levels of recombination activity of the mutant RAG proteins. Furthermore, studies in patients and in newly developed animal models carrying hypomorphic RAG mutations have disclosed various mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in this condition. Careful annotation of clinical outcome and immune reconstitution in RAG-deficient patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has shown that progress has been made in the treatment of this disease, but new approaches remain to be tested to improve stem cell engraftment and durable immune reconstitution. Finally, initial attempts have been made to treat RAG deficiency with gene therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-90
Number of pages18
JournalImmunological Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • autoimmunity
  • immunodeficiency
  • immunological tolerance
  • Omenn syndrome
  • recombinase activating genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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