Although limited by severe side effects and development of resistance, platinum-based therapies still represent the most common first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, a crucial need in the clinical management of NSCLC is represented by the identification of cases sensitive to DNA damage response (DDR)-targeting drugs, such as cisplatin or PARP inhibitors. Here, we provide a molecular rationale for the stratification of NSCLC patients potentially benefitting from platinum compounds based on the expression levels of RANBP9, a recently identified player of the cellular DDR. RANBP9 was found overexpressed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in NSCLC compared to normal adjacent tissues (NATs) (n = 147). Moreover, a retrospective analysis of 132 platinum-treated patients from the multi-centric TAILOR trial showed that RANBP9 overexpression levels are associated with clinical response to platinum compounds [Progression Free Survival Hazard Ratio (RANBP9 high vs low) 1.73, 95% CI 1.15-2.59, p = 0.0084; Overall Survival HR (RANBP9 high vs low) 1.99, 95% CI 1.27-3.11, p = 0.003]. Accordingly, RANBP9 KO cells showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin in comparison with WT controls both in vitro and in vivo models. NSCLC RANBP9 KO cells were also more sensitive than control cells to the PARP inhibitor olaparib alone and in combination with cisplatin, due to defective ATM-dependent and hyper-activated PARP-dependent DDR. The current investigation paves the way to prospective studies to assess the clinical value of RANBP9 protein levels as prognostic and predictive biomarker of response to DDR-targeting drugs, leading to the development of new tools for the management of NSCLC patients.