Retinoids cause differentiation in embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, thus mimicking events in mammalian development. Here, we show that retinoids also cause apoptosis in P19 EC cells. Characteristic DNA fragmentation was observed within 36 h after addition of retinoic acid (RA). Synthetic retinoids that are selective for RA receptors (RAR) were also effective in induciug apoptosis, whereas RXR selective ligands were without effect. The combination of RAR and RXR ligands resulted in a synergistic increase in apoptotic cell death. As with apoptosis, neuronal differentiation of P19 cells was synergistically induced by the combination of RAR and RXR ligands. Data obtained with an RAR antagonist and with P19 cells carrying a dominant negative RXR indicate that the two processes are receptor mediated. Together, our results indicate that retinoid-induced apoptosis and neuronal differentiation are closely coupled, and that both RAR and RXR play a role in these processes as active receptors for their respective ligands.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Cell Biology