Rate, correlates and outcomes of repeat pregnancy in HIV-infected women

M. Floridia, E. Tamburrini, G. Masuelli, P. Martinelli, A. Spinillo, G. Liuzzi, A. Vimercati, S. Alberico, A. Maccabruni, C. Pinnetti, V. Frisina, S. Dalzero, M. Ravizza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the rate, determinants, and outcomes of repeat pregnancies in women with HIV infection. Methods: Data from a national study of pregnant women with HIV infection were used. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight, CD4 cell count and HIV plasma viral load. Results: The rate of repeat pregnancy among 3007 women was 16.2%. Women with a repeat pregnancy were on average younger than those with a single pregnancy (median age 30 vs. 33 years, respectively), more recently diagnosed with HIV infection (median time since diagnosis 25 vs. 51 months, respectively), and more frequently of foreign origin [odds ratio (OR) 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.68], diagnosed with HIV infection in the current pregnancy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.35-2.11), and at their first pregnancy (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.66). In women with sequential pregnancies, compared with the first pregnancy, several outcomes showed a significant improvement in the second pregnancy, with a higher rate of antiretroviral treatment at conception (39.0 vs. 65.4%, respectively), better median maternal weight at the start of pregnancy (60 vs. 61 kg, respectively), a higher rate of end-of-pregnancy undetectable HIV RNA (60.7 vs. 71.6%, respectively), a higher median birth weight (2815 vs. 2885 g, respectively), lower rates of preterm delivery (23.0 vs. 17.7%, respectively) and of low birth weight (23.4 vs. 15.4%, respectively), and a higher median CD4 cell count (+47 cells/μL), with almost no clinical progression to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C (CDC-C) HIV disease (0.3%). The second pregnancy was significantly more likely to end in voluntary termination than the first pregnancy (11.4 vs. 6.1%, respectively). Conclusions: Younger and foreign women were more likely to have a repeat pregnancy; in women with sequential pregnancies, the second pregnancy was characterized by a significant improvement in several outcomes, suggesting that women with HIV infection who desire multiple children may proceed safely and confidently with subsequent pregnancies.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHIV Medicine
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2016


  • Birth weight
  • HIV
  • Pregnancy
  • Preterm delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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