Real-life outcome of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization defibrillator replacement/upgrade in a contemporary population: observations from the multicentre DECODE registry

Mauro Biffi, Ernesto Ammendola, Endrj Menardi, Quintino Parisi, Maria Lucia Narducci, Paolo De Filippo, Michele Manzo, Giuseppe Stabile, Domenico Rosario Potenza, Francesco Zanon, Fabio Quartieri, Mariano Rillo, Davide Saporito, Valerio Zacà, Massimo Zoni Berisso, Matteo Bertini, Fabio Tumietto, Maurizio Malacrida, Igor Diemberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


AIMS: The benefit of prolonged implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy following device replacement is hindered by clinical and procedure-related adverse events (AEs). Adverse events rate is highest in more complex devices and at upgrades, as per the REPLACE registry experience, but is changing owing to the improvement in device technology and medical care. We aimed at understanding the extent and type of AEs in a contemporary Italian population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detect long-term complications after ICD replacement (DECODE) was a prospective, single-arm, multicentre cohort study aimed at estimating medium- to long-term AEs in a large population of patients undergoing ICD/cardiac resynchronization defibrillator replacement/upgrade from 2013 to 2015. We prospectively analysed all clinical and device-related AEs at 12-month follow-up (FU) of 983 consecutive patients (median age 71 years, 76% male, 55% ischaemic, 47% CRT-D) followed for 353 ± 49 days. Seven percent of the patients died (60.6% for cardiovascular reasons), whereas 104 AEs occurred; 43 (4.4%) patients needed at least one surgical action to treat the AE. Adverse events rates were 3.3/100 years lead-related, 3.4/100 years bleedings, and 1.6/100 years infective. The primary endpoint was predicted by hospitalization in the month prior to the procedure [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.23, 1.16-4.29; 0.0169] and by upgrade (HR = 1.75, 1.02-2.99, 0.0441). One hundred and twelve (11.4%) patients met the combined endpoint of death from any cause, cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)-related infection, and surgical action/hospitalization required to treat the AE. Hospitalization within 30 days prior to the procedure (HR = 2.07, 1.13-3.81; 0.0199), anticoagulation (HR = 1.97, 1.26-3.07; 0.003), and ischaemic cardiomyopathy (HR = 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.63; P = 0.0276) were associated with the combined endpoint during FU. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse events following CIED replacement/upgrade are lower than previously reported, possibly owing to improved patients care. Hospitalization in the month prior to the procedure, upgrade, and clinical profile (anticoagulation, ischaemic cardiomyopathy) hint to increased risk, suggesting an individualized planning of the procedure to minimize overall AEs. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: Identifier: NCT02076789.



  • Cardiac resynchronisation therapy–defibrillator
  • Complication
  • Implantable cardioverter–defibrillator
  • Infection
  • Registry
  • Replacement
  • Upgrade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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