Real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Progress and challenges

J. Sulzer, S. Haller, F. Scharnowski, N. Weiskopf, N. Birbaumer, M. L. Blefari, A. B. Bruehl, L. G. Cohen, R. C. deCharms, R. Gassert, R. Goebel, U. Herwig, S. LaConte, D. Linden, A. Luft, E. Seifritz, R. Sitaram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In February of 2012, the first international conference on real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback was held at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland. This review summarizes progress in the field, introduces current debates, elucidates open questions, and offers viewpoints derived from the conference. The review offers perspectives on study design, scientific and clinical applications, rtfMRI learning mechanisms and future outlook.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386-399
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2013


  • Brain-computer interface
  • Neurofeedback
  • Operant conditioning
  • Real-time fMRI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neurology


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