Real-Time Regulation and Detection of Brain States from fMRI Signals

Ranganatha Sitaram, Sangkyun Lee, Sergio Ruiz, Niels Birbaumer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter allows noninvasive assessment of brain function with high spatial resolution and whole brain coverage, by measuring changes of the blood oxygenation level- dependent (BOLD) signal. Although the BOLD response is an indirect measure of neural activity, there is accumulating evidence suggesting the close coupling between BOLD and electrical activity of the neurons. It is postulated that the combined effect of increases and decreases in deoxygenated hemoglobin content resulting from changes in cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and oxygen metabolism following neural firing results in the BOLD signal. fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) data typically consist of time-series of several hundred 3D images across the brain over a period of time, with each image acquired every few seconds. fMRI usability and applications have been somewhat limited by the offline mode of data analysis; due to the large size of the data, very intensive computation involved in preprocessing and analysis of fMRI images.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeurofeedback and Neuromodulation Techniques and Applications
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages27
ISBN (Print)9780123822352
Publication statusPublished - 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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