RT3DE Predicts Acute Response to CRT. Objective: To evaluate the value of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) to predict acute response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods: Sixty consecutive heart failure patients scheduled for CRT were included. RT3DE was performed before and within 48 hours after pacemaker implantation to calculate both left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV dyssynchrony. LV dyssynchrony was defined as the standard deviation of the time taken to reach the minimum systolic volume for 16 LV segments (referred to as the systolic dyssynchrony index, SDI). Patients were subsequently divided into acute responders or nonresponders, based on a reduction ≥ 15% in LV end-systolic volume immediately after CRT. Results: Four patients (7%) were excluded from further analysis because of either suboptimal apical acquisitions or significant translation artifacts. Out of the remaining 56 patients, 35 patients (63%) were classified as acute responders. Baseline characteristics were similar between responders and nonresponders, except for the SDI, which was larger in responders. Moreover, responders demonstrated a significant reduction of SDI immediately after CRT (from 9.7 ± 4.1% to 3.6 ± 1.8%, P <0.0001), whereas SDI did not change in nonresponders (3.4 ± 1.8% vs 3.1 ± 1.1%, NS). ROC curve analysis revealed that a cut-off value for SDI of 5.6% yielded a sensitivity of 88% with a specificity of 86% to predict acute echocardiographic response to CRT (AUC 0.96). Conclusion: RT3DE is highly predictive for acute response to CRT (sensitivity 88% and specificity 86%). In addition, RT3DE allows assessment of changes in LV volumes and LV ejection fraction before and after CRT implantation.
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy
- Heart failure
- Left ventricular dyssynchrony
- Left ventricular function
- Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine