Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica

Francesco Muratore, Giulia Pazzola, Nicolò Pipitone, Carlo Salvarani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Polymyalgia rheumatica is one of the most common rheumatic inflammatory disorders in people older than 50 years characterized by aching and prolonged morning stiffness in the shoulder and pelvic girdle and neck.. Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on recent advances on the diagnosis and management of PMR. Expert commentary: Controversy exist whether PMR represent a single entity disease or is an umbrella term that comprises a clinical presentation common to a range of related conditions (polymyalgic syndrome). To date there are no specific diagnostic tests, and the diagnosis remains clinical, although ultrasonography, positron emission tomography scan and the recent ACR/EULAR classification criteria may help to confirm the clinical diagnosis. A step-wise process for the diagnosis of PMR has been proposed. Low-dose steroids are highly effective in the majority of patients and remain the mainstay of treatment, but relapses occur in about 50% of patients and glucocorticoid related adverse event are common. The steroid sparing effects of the immunosuppressive treatment evaluated to date are unclear.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalExpert Review of Clinical Immunology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - May 7 2016


  • classification criteria
  • giant cell arteritis
  • glucocorticoids
  • PET
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • recommendations
  • tocilizumab
  • ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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