Recent advances of electrochemical and optical enzyme-free glucose sensors operating at physiological conditions

Muhammad Adeel, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Isabella Caligiuri, Vincenzo Canzonieri, Flavio Rizzolio, Salvatore Daniele

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Diabetes is a pathological condition that requires the continuous monitoring of glucose level in the blood. Its control has been tremendously improved by the application of point-of-care devices. Conventional enzyme-based sensors with electrochemical and optical transduction systems can successfully measure the glucose concentration in human blood, but they suffer from the low stability of the enzyme. Non-enzymatic wearable electrochemical and optical sensors, with low-cost, high stability, point-of-care testing and online monitoring of glucose levels in biological fluids, have recently been developed and can help to manage and control diabetes worldwide. Advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have enabled the development of novel nanomaterials that can be implemented for the use in enzyme-free systems to detect glucose. This review summarizes recent developments of enzyme-free electrochemical and optical glucose sensors, as well as their respective wearable and commercially available devices, capable of detecting glucose at physiological pH conditions without the need to pretreat the biological fluids. Additionally, the evolution of electrochemical glucose sensor technology and a couple of widely used optical detection systems along with the glucose detection mechanism is also discussed. Finally, this review addresses limitations and challenges of current non-enzymatic electrochemical, optical, and wearable glucose sensor technologies and highlights opportunities for future research directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112331
Number of pages13
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2020


  • Electrochemical and optical sensors
  • Enzyme-free systems
  • Glucose sensor
  • Physiological conditions
  • Wearable devices

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Recent advances of electrochemical and optical enzyme-free glucose sensors operating at physiological conditions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this