Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses

Moira Paroni, Virginia Maltese, Marco De Simone, Valeria Ranzani, Paola Larghi, Chiara Fenoglio, Anna M. Pietroboni, Milena A. De Riz, Maria C. Crosti, Stefano Maglie, Monica Moro, Flavio Caprioli, Riccardo Rossi, Grazisa Rossetti, Daniela Galimberti, Massimiliano Pagani, Elio Scarpini, Sergio Abrignani, Jens Geginat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS. Methods We analyzed CD4+ helper T-cell subsets from peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid for cytokine production, gene expression, plasticity, homing potentials, and their reactivity to self-antigens and viral antigens in healthy subjects and patients with MS. Moreover, we monitored their frequencies in untreated and fingolimod- or natalizumab-treated patients with MS. Results TH1/TH17 central memory (TH1/TH17CM) cells were selectively increased in peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a high disease score. TH1/TH17CM cells were closely related to conventional TH17 cells but had more pathogenic features. In particular, they could shuttle between lymph nodes and the CNS and produced encephalitogenic cytokines. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS was enriched for CXCL10 and contained mainly CXCR3-expressing TH1 and TH1/TH17 subsets. However, while TH1 cells responded consistently to viruses, TH1/TH17CM cells reacted strongly with John Cunningham virus in healthy subjects but responded instead to myelin-derived self-antigens in patients with MS. Fingolimod and natalizumab therapies efficiently targeted autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells but also blocked virus-specific TH1 cells. Conclusions We propose that autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells expand in patients with MS and promote relapses after bystander recruitment to the CNS, whereas TH1 cells perform immune surveillance. Thus the selective targeting of TH1/TH17 cells could inhibit relapses without causing John Cunningham virus–dependent progressive multifocal encephalomyelitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)797-808
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Volume140
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2017

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Viral Antigens
Autoantigens
Multiple Sclerosis
Recurrence
T-Lymphocytes
Th17 Cells
Central Nervous System
Viruses
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Healthy Volunteers
JC Virus
Cytokines
Encephalomyelitis
Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis
T-Lymphocyte Subsets
Demyelinating Diseases
Virus Diseases
Myelin Sheath
Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes
Antiviral Agents

Keywords

  • autoreactivity
  • fingolimod
  • John Cunningham Virus
  • multiple sclerosis
  • natalizumab
  • T1/T17 central memory T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses. / Paroni, Moira; Maltese, Virginia; De Simone, Marco; Ranzani, Valeria; Larghi, Paola; Fenoglio, Chiara; Pietroboni, Anna M.; De Riz, Milena A.; Crosti, Maria C.; Maglie, Stefano; Moro, Monica; Caprioli, Flavio; Rossi, Riccardo; Rossetti, Grazisa; Galimberti, Daniela; Pagani, Massimiliano; Scarpini, Elio; Abrignani, Sergio; Geginat, Jens.

In: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol. 140, No. 3, 01.09.2017, p. 797-808.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS. Methods We analyzed CD4+ helper T-cell subsets from peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid for cytokine production, gene expression, plasticity, homing potentials, and their reactivity to self-antigens and viral antigens in healthy subjects and patients with MS. Moreover, we monitored their frequencies in untreated and fingolimod- or natalizumab-treated patients with MS. Results TH1/TH17 central memory (TH1/TH17CM) cells were selectively increased in peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a high disease score. TH1/TH17CM cells were closely related to conventional TH17 cells but had more pathogenic features. In particular, they could shuttle between lymph nodes and the CNS and produced encephalitogenic cytokines. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS was enriched for CXCL10 and contained mainly CXCR3-expressing TH1 and TH1/TH17 subsets. However, while TH1 cells responded consistently to viruses, TH1/TH17CM cells reacted strongly with John Cunningham virus in healthy subjects but responded instead to myelin-derived self-antigens in patients with MS. Fingolimod and natalizumab therapies efficiently targeted autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells but also blocked virus-specific TH1 cells. Conclusions We propose that autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells expand in patients with MS and promote relapses after bystander recruitment to the CNS, whereas TH1 cells perform immune surveillance. Thus the selective targeting of TH1/TH17 cells could inhibit relapses without causing John Cunningham virus–dependent progressive multifocal encephalomyelitis.",
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author = "Moira Paroni and Virginia Maltese and {De Simone}, Marco and Valeria Ranzani and Paola Larghi and Chiara Fenoglio and Pietroboni, {Anna M.} and {De Riz}, {Milena A.} and Crosti, {Maria C.} and Stefano Maglie and Monica Moro and Flavio Caprioli and Riccardo Rossi and Grazisa Rossetti and Daniela Galimberti and Massimiliano Pagani and Elio Scarpini and Sergio Abrignani and Jens Geginat",
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T1 - Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses

AU - Paroni, Moira

AU - Maltese, Virginia

AU - De Simone, Marco

AU - Ranzani, Valeria

AU - Larghi, Paola

AU - Fenoglio, Chiara

AU - Pietroboni, Anna M.

AU - De Riz, Milena A.

AU - Crosti, Maria C.

AU - Maglie, Stefano

AU - Moro, Monica

AU - Caprioli, Flavio

AU - Rossi, Riccardo

AU - Rossetti, Grazisa

AU - Galimberti, Daniela

AU - Pagani, Massimiliano

AU - Scarpini, Elio

AU - Abrignani, Sergio

AU - Geginat, Jens

PY - 2017/9/1

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N2 - Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS. Methods We analyzed CD4+ helper T-cell subsets from peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid for cytokine production, gene expression, plasticity, homing potentials, and their reactivity to self-antigens and viral antigens in healthy subjects and patients with MS. Moreover, we monitored their frequencies in untreated and fingolimod- or natalizumab-treated patients with MS. Results TH1/TH17 central memory (TH1/TH17CM) cells were selectively increased in peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a high disease score. TH1/TH17CM cells were closely related to conventional TH17 cells but had more pathogenic features. In particular, they could shuttle between lymph nodes and the CNS and produced encephalitogenic cytokines. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS was enriched for CXCL10 and contained mainly CXCR3-expressing TH1 and TH1/TH17 subsets. However, while TH1 cells responded consistently to viruses, TH1/TH17CM cells reacted strongly with John Cunningham virus in healthy subjects but responded instead to myelin-derived self-antigens in patients with MS. Fingolimod and natalizumab therapies efficiently targeted autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells but also blocked virus-specific TH1 cells. Conclusions We propose that autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells expand in patients with MS and promote relapses after bystander recruitment to the CNS, whereas TH1 cells perform immune surveillance. Thus the selective targeting of TH1/TH17 cells could inhibit relapses without causing John Cunningham virus–dependent progressive multifocal encephalomyelitis.

AB - Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS. Methods We analyzed CD4+ helper T-cell subsets from peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid for cytokine production, gene expression, plasticity, homing potentials, and their reactivity to self-antigens and viral antigens in healthy subjects and patients with MS. Moreover, we monitored their frequencies in untreated and fingolimod- or natalizumab-treated patients with MS. Results TH1/TH17 central memory (TH1/TH17CM) cells were selectively increased in peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a high disease score. TH1/TH17CM cells were closely related to conventional TH17 cells but had more pathogenic features. In particular, they could shuttle between lymph nodes and the CNS and produced encephalitogenic cytokines. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS was enriched for CXCL10 and contained mainly CXCR3-expressing TH1 and TH1/TH17 subsets. However, while TH1 cells responded consistently to viruses, TH1/TH17CM cells reacted strongly with John Cunningham virus in healthy subjects but responded instead to myelin-derived self-antigens in patients with MS. Fingolimod and natalizumab therapies efficiently targeted autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells but also blocked virus-specific TH1 cells. Conclusions We propose that autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells expand in patients with MS and promote relapses after bystander recruitment to the CNS, whereas TH1 cells perform immune surveillance. Thus the selective targeting of TH1/TH17 cells could inhibit relapses without causing John Cunningham virus–dependent progressive multifocal encephalomyelitis.

KW - autoreactivity

KW - fingolimod

KW - John Cunningham Virus

KW - multiple sclerosis

KW - natalizumab

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