Recommendations for echocardiography use in the diagnosis and management of cardiac sources of embolism

Mauro Pepi, Arturo Evangelista, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, Frank A. Flachskampf, George Athanassopoulos, Paolo Colonna, Gilbert Habib, E. Bernd Ringelstein, Rosa Sicari, Jose Luis Zamorano, Marta Sitges, Pio Caso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Embolism of cardiac origin accounts for around 15-30% of ischaemic strokes. Strokes due to cardioembolism are generally severe and early and long-term recurrence and mortality are high. The diagnosis of a cardioembolic source of stroke is frequently uncertain and relies on the identification of a potential cardiac source of embolism in the absence of significant autochthone cerebrovascular occlusive disease. In this respect, echocardiography (both transthoracic and/or transoesophageal) serves as a cornerstone in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these patients. A clear understanding of the various types of cardiac conditions associated with cardioembolic stroke and their intrinsic risk is therefore very important. This article reviews potential cardiac sources of embolism and discusses the role of echocardiography in clinical practice. Recommendations for the use of echocardiography in the diagnosis of cardiac sources of embolism are given including major and minor conditions associated with the risk of embolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-476
Number of pages16
JournalEuropean Journal of Echocardiography
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • Cardioembolic stroke
  • Transoesophageal echocardiography
  • Transthoracic echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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