Recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography: EACVI update 2014

Frank A. Flachskampf, Patrick F. Wouters, Thor Edvardsen, Artur Evangelista, Gilbert Habib, Piotr Hoffman, Rainer Hoffmann, Patrizio Lancellotti, Mauro Pepi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


With this document, we update the recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging. The document focusses on the areas of interventional TOE, in particular transcatheter aortic, mitral, and left atrial appendage interventions, as well as on the role of TOE in infective endocarditis, adult congenital heart disease, and aortic disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-365
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • 3D echo
  • interventional echocardiography
  • transoesophageal echocardiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Medicine(all)

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    Flachskampf, F. A., Wouters, P. F., Edvardsen, T., Evangelista, A., Habib, G., Hoffman, P., Hoffmann, R., Lancellotti, P., & Pepi, M. (2014). Recommendations for transoesophageal echocardiography: EACVI update 2014. European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging, 15(4), 353-365.