Recurrence of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation: A Report of Two Cases from the iCAβ International Network

Jacopo C. DiFrancesco, Mehdi Touat, Massimo Caulo, Massimo Gallucci, Béatrice Garcin, Richard Levy, Antonino Uncini, Fabrizio Piazza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri) represents the most readily responsive form of CAA, if diagnosed and treated early. Although CAA-ri typically presents with a monophasic pattern, recurrences have been occasionally reported. Objectives: To describe the evolution of the clinical and neuroradiological features of CAA-ri recurrence. Methods: From the 60 CAA-ri cases recruited through the iCAβ International Network, we identified those patients who experienced a CAA-ri recurrence at more than 12 months after the first inflammatory event. Neuroradiological evidence of cerebral inflammation (vasogenic edema) and sulcal superficial siderosis or multiple areas of cortical/subcortical microhemorrhages (MHs) were evaluated based upon fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2∗-weighted gradient echo or susceptibility weighted imaging, respectively. In one patient, the deposition of amyloid-β was evaluated using 11C-Pittsburgh Compound B-positron emission tomography (PiB-PET). Results: Of the 60 cases, two were identified as having experienced a late CAA-ri recurrence, at two and seven years after the first presentation, respectively. At recurrence, the inflammatory lesions colocalized with the appearance of new MHs and were observed in brain areas different from those where the first onset occurred. PiB-PET four months after remission showed particularly low amyloid-β deposition in the left frontal lobe, while no change was observed in the area of the inflammatory relapse. Conclusions: Our observations highlight the importance of not underestimating any new neurological symptoms in patients who have already experienced an episode of CAA-ri. Although the frequency of CAA-ri recurrences is rare, in cases of suspected relapse, a prompt clinical and radiological follow-up should be considered in order to obtain a timely diagnosis and treatment, having a potential strong impact on patients' clinical outcome.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1077
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume46
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 26 2015

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • amyloid-PET
  • amyloid-related imaging abnormalities
  • cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation
  • iCAβ International Network
  • immunotherapy trials
  • inflammatory relapse
  • microhemorrhages
  • steroid treatment
  • vasogenic edema

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Clinical Psychology

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