BACKGROUND Long-term real-world data are relatively sparse regarding recurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after liver transplantation using hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) and nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) prophylaxis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data from 371 adults transplanted for HBV-related disease at 20 European centers and given HBIg for ³12 months ± NUC therapy were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS HBIg comprised Hepatect® (iv HBIgB; n=299), subcutaneous Zutectra® (sc HBIg, n=236), and other HBIg preparations (n=130); 93.5% received NUC therapy. Mean follow-up was 6.8±3.5 years. The primary efficacy variable, freedom from HBV recurrence, occurred in 95.7% of patients (95% CI [93.1%, 97.5%]). The observed incidence of recurrence was 16/371 (4.3%) (annual rate 0.65%); 5/16 patients with recurrence had discontinued HBIg and 7/16 had anti-HBs <100 IU/l. Excluding these 7 patients, the HBV recurrence rate was 2.4%. The recurrence rate while on HBIg therapy was 1 per 2069 months. In patients who discontinued HBIg, risk of HBV recurrence versus sc HBIg users was increased by 5.2-fold (1 per 1 603 versus 1 per 8379 treatment months). The annual rate of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence was 1.7%. CONCLUSIONS These results support the long-term use of HBIg with NUC therapy as an effective management strategy to minimize risk of HBV recurrence and virus-related complications after liver transplantation.