Recurrent Focal Myositis in Childhood: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature

Gregorio P. Milani, Marta B.M. Mazzoni, Helga Gatti, Giuseppe Bertolozzi, Emilio F. Fossali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Recurrent focal myositis in adulthood has been documented in case reports and case series. Existing textbooks and reviews do not mention or mention only in passing this entity in childhood. We present a patient with recurrent focal myositis and summarize available clinical, laboratory, management, and outcome data on this entity in the pediatric ages. Method We describe a nine-year-old patient with recurrent myositis of the left biceps. The terms “myositis” and “relapsing” or “recurrent” or “recurrence” were searched using the United States National Library of Medicine and the Excerpta Medica Database. Pertinent secondary references were also screened. Results Another seven pediatric patients (five males and two females, median age ten years, interquartile range 7-14 years) with recurrent focal myositis were identified. In children, the calf was the most frequently involved muscle. Unlike adults, the myositis in children was usually painful. Episodes could be associated with normal or elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood levels of C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Abnormalities of the creatine kinase value did not seem to be associated with a higher risk of recurrences. Conclusions Focal myositis has a favorable outcome in children. Recurrent focal myositis is rare and usually benign in childhood. More data are needed to improve the understanding of this condition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-81.e1
JournalPediatric Neurology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2017


  • creatine kinase
  • inflammation
  • localized myositis
  • muscle inflammation
  • pediatric
  • relapsing myositis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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