High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a prototypical endogenous signal that links tissue necrosis and wound healing. Extracellular HMGB1 has apparently contrasting biological actions: it sustains inflammation (with the possible establishment of autoimmunity or of self-maintaining tissue damage) while activating and recruiting stem cells, which foster tissue repair. However, little is known about the role environmental cues play in the extracellular functions of HMGB1. The skeletal muscle is an optimal tissue model to help us unravel these underlying molecular events. Here, sterile injury triggers a potent inflammatory response that includes infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes and the parallel activation, proliferation, and fusion of muscle-specific stem cells. Recent data suggest that the regulation of environmental redox is critical for the bioactivity of HMGB1, which is extremely sensitive to oxidation. Moreover, data suggest a potential role for infiltrating alternatively activated macrophages to influence the outcome of inflammatory responses to sterile skeletal muscle necrosis.
- Cell death
- Cell therapy
- Skeletal muscle
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- History and Philosophy of Science