Reduced evoked gamma oscillations in the frontal cortex in schizophrenia patients

A TMS/EEG study

Fabio Ferrarelli, Marcello Massimini, Michael J. Peterson, Brady A. Riedner, Mariana Lazar, Michael J. Murphy, Reto Huber, Mario Rosanova, Andrew L. Alexander, Ned Kalin, Giulio Tononi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

136 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with high-density electroencephalography (EEG) can be used to directly examine the properties of thalamocortical circuits in the brain without engaging an individual in cognitive or motor tasks. The authors investigated EEG responses in schizophrenia patients and healthy comparison subjects following the application of TMS to the premotor cortex. Method: Sixteen schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy comparison subjects were recruited to participate in the study. Participants underwent three to five TMS/high-density EEG sessions at various TMS doses. The following three aspects of TMS-evoked responses were analyzed: amplitude, synchronization, and source localization. Results: Relative to healthy comparison subjects, schizophrenia patients had a marked decrease in evoked gamma oscillations that occurred within the first 100 msec after TMS, particularly in a cluster of electrodes located in a fronto-central region. These oscillations were significantly reduced in amplitude (calculated using global-mean field power and event-related spectral perturbation analysis) and synchronization (measured using intertrial coherence). Furthermore, source modeling analysis revealed that the TMS-evoked brain activation underlying these gamma oscillations in patients with schizophrenia did not propagate (as it did in healthy comparison subjects) and was mostly confined to the stimulated brain region. Conclusions: Schizophrenia patients showed a decrease in EEG-evoked responses in the gamma band when TMS was applied to directly stimulate the frontal cortex while these responses were recorded. Since EEG responses to direct cortical stimulation are not affected by an individual's motivation, attention, or cognitive capacity and are not relayed through peripheral afferent pathways, these findings suggest that there might be an intrinsic dysfunction in frontal thalamocortical circuits in individuals with schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)996-1005
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Volume165
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Frontal Lobe
Electroencephalography
Schizophrenia
Healthy Volunteers
Brain
Afferent Pathways
Motor Cortex
Motivation
Electrodes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Reduced evoked gamma oscillations in the frontal cortex in schizophrenia patients : A TMS/EEG study. / Ferrarelli, Fabio; Massimini, Marcello; Peterson, Michael J.; Riedner, Brady A.; Lazar, Mariana; Murphy, Michael J.; Huber, Reto; Rosanova, Mario; Alexander, Andrew L.; Kalin, Ned; Tononi, Giulio.

In: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 165, No. 8, 08.2008, p. 996-1005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ferrarelli, F, Massimini, M, Peterson, MJ, Riedner, BA, Lazar, M, Murphy, MJ, Huber, R, Rosanova, M, Alexander, AL, Kalin, N & Tononi, G 2008, 'Reduced evoked gamma oscillations in the frontal cortex in schizophrenia patients: A TMS/EEG study', American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 8, pp. 996-1005. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111733
Ferrarelli, Fabio ; Massimini, Marcello ; Peterson, Michael J. ; Riedner, Brady A. ; Lazar, Mariana ; Murphy, Michael J. ; Huber, Reto ; Rosanova, Mario ; Alexander, Andrew L. ; Kalin, Ned ; Tononi, Giulio. / Reduced evoked gamma oscillations in the frontal cortex in schizophrenia patients : A TMS/EEG study. In: American Journal of Psychiatry. 2008 ; Vol. 165, No. 8. pp. 996-1005.
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AU - Riedner, Brady A.

AU - Lazar, Mariana

AU - Murphy, Michael J.

AU - Huber, Reto

AU - Rosanova, Mario

AU - Alexander, Andrew L.

AU - Kalin, Ned

AU - Tononi, Giulio

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