Reduced fibrinolytic resistance in patients with factor XI deficiency. Evidence of a thrombin-independent impairment of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor pathway

M. Colucci, F. Incampo, A. Cannavò, M. Menegatti, S. M. Siboni, F. Zaccaria, N. Semeraro, F. Peyvandi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Essentials Plasma of factor XI-deficient patients (FXI-dp) displays enhanced fibrinolysis. We investigated the role of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in 18 FXI-dp. FXI-dp generated less activated TAFI (TAFIa) on clotting challenge and were resistant to TAFIa. TAFI activation and TAFIa resistance correlated with bleeding score and bleeding phenotype. Summary: Background Factor XI (FXI) deficiency, a rare disorder with unpredictable bleeding, has been associated with reduced fibrinolytic resistance as a result of abnormal fibrin density. Objective We investigated the involvement of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in the increased lysability of FXI-deficient (FXI-def) clots and the role of thrombin. Patients/Methods Eighteen patients with FXI deficiency (1–58%) and 17 matched controls were investigated for fibrinolytic resistance to t-PA, thrombin generation, TAFI activation and response to TAFIa. Results When clotting was induced by 0.5 pm tissue factor (TF), FXI-def plasmas displayed less thrombin and TAFIa generation and shorter lysis time than controls. A 100-fold higher TF concentration (to bypass FXI) abolished the difference in thrombin generation but not in lysis time between patients and controls. Normalization of FXI levels by a FXI concentrate increased thrombin generation but had no effect on the lysis time of FXI-def plasma. Moreover, when clots were induced by purified thrombin and high concentrations of FXa inhibitor, FXI-def plasma still generated less TAFIa and displayed a shorter lysis time than controls. Finally, upon TAFIa addition, the lysis time of FXI-def plasma was prolonged significantly less than that of control plasma, suggesting a TAFIa resistance. TAFIa generation and TAFIa resistance were correlated with the bleeding score, displaying a considerable capacity to discriminate between patients with and without bleeding. Conclusions TAFI pathway impairment, largely caused by a hitherto unknown TAFIa resistance, appears to be one main cause of decreased fibrinolytic resistance in FXI deficiency and might be clinically useful for assessing the bleeding risk of FXI-def patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1603-1614
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

Keywords

  • factor XI deficiency
  • fibrinolysis
  • hemorrhage
  • plasma procarboxypeptidase B
  • thrombin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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