Purpose: To define reference values of cardiac volumes, dimensions, and new morpho-functional parameters normalized for age, gender, and body surface area by cine-bSSFP (balanced steady-state free-precession) magnetic resonance (MR). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 308 healthy subjects subdivided by gender and by six age classes: class I, >15-20 years; class II, >20-30 years; class III, >30-40 years; class IV, >40-50 years; class V, >50-60 years; and class VI >60 years. Dimensional, volumetric and morpho-functional parameters of the left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles were measured using cine-bSSFP MRI at 1.5T. Results: The LV and RV end-diastolic volume indexes (EDVi) were inversely related to age (P <0.0001 r=-0.34 and P <0.0001 r=-0.37, respectively). In addition, the LV mass index decreased with age (P=0.0004, r=-0.21). The LV longitudinal shortening was not significantly different among groups: ≥15% in all populations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16-31). The sphericity index measured in end-diastole was higher in females than in males (P <0.03): the upper limit was 40% for males and 42% for females. The normality cutoff of LV global function index was ≥33% in males and ≥35% in females. The end-diastolic volume (EDV) of RV and LV was balanced (RV/LV ratio 0.85-1.15) without differences in the population. The LV EDV/mass was 1.0-1.8 in males and 1.0-2.1 in females. Conclusion: This study provides potential age- and gender-specific reference.
- Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
- Left ventricular global function index
- Longitudinal shortening
- Reference values
- RV/LV EDV ratio
- Sphericity index