Reference values of cardiac volumes, dimensions, and new functional parameters by MR: A multicenter, multivendor study

G.D. Aquaro, G. Camastra, L. Monti, M. Lombardi, A. Pepe, S. Castelletti, V. Maestrini, G. Todiere, P. Masci, G. di Giovine, A. Barison, S. Dellegrottaglie, M. Perazzolo Marra, G. Pontone, G. Di Bella, On behalf of the working group “Applicazioni della Risonanza Magnetica“ of the Italian Society of Cardiology

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Purpose: To define reference values of cardiac volumes, dimensions, and new morpho-functional parameters normalized for age, gender, and body surface area by cine-bSSFP (balanced steady-state free-precession) magnetic resonance (MR). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 308 healthy subjects subdivided by gender and by six age classes: class I, >15–20 years; class II, >20–30 years; class III, >30–40 years; class IV, >40–50 years; class V, >50–60 years; and class VI >60 years. Dimensional, volumetric and morpho-functional parameters of the left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles were measured using cine-bSSFP MRI at 1.5T. Results: The LV and RV end-diastolic volume indexes (EDVi) were inversely related to age (P <0.0001 r = –0.34 and P <0.0001 r = –0.37, respectively). In addition, the LV mass index decreased with age (P = 0.0004, r = –0.21). The LV longitudinal shortening was not significantly different among groups: ≥15% in all populations (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16–31). The sphericity index measured in end-diastole was higher in females than in males (P <0.03): the upper limit was 40% for males and 42% for females. The normality cutoff of LV global function index was ≥33% in males and ≥35% in females. The end-diastolic volume (EDV) of RV and LV was balanced (RV/LV ratio 0.85–1.15) without differences in the population. The LV EDV/mass was 1.0–1.8 in males and 1.0–2.1 in females. Conclusion: This study provides potential age- and gender-specific reference. Level of Evidence: 2. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1055–1067. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1055-1067
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
  • left ventricular global function index
  • longitudinal shortening
  • reference values
  • RV/LV EDV ratio
  • sphericity index
  • adult
  • Article
  • cardiovascular parameters
  • cine balanced steady state free precession
  • controlled study
  • female
  • heart left ventricle ejection fraction
  • heart volume
  • human
  • image analysis
  • image quality
  • left ventricle enddiastolic mass index
  • left ventricle enddiastolic volume index
  • left ventricle longitudinal shortening
  • male
  • middle aged
  • nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
  • nuclear magnetic resonance scanner
  • population research
  • reproducibility
  • right ventricle enddiastolic volume index
  • young adult


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