Refining correction factors for back-calculation of illicit drug use

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors. A wide range of correction factors have been used in different studies and some biases must be expected when comparing results. Most of the correction factors were developed several years ago, so they need to be updated to include the latest information on pharmacokinetics. Moreover, new comprehensive methods to treat data should be adopted. The goal of this study is to refine current correction factors for back-calculation of the most widely used illicit drugs: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The mean percentages of excretion of the parent drugs and their metabolites were calculated for each route of administration, utilizing all accessible pharmacokinetic studies in the literature. This allowed to select the most suitable drug target residue and a refined correction factor was obtained for each substance considering the most frequent route of administration. The refined correction factors we propose can be used in wastewater based epidemiology to standardize the back-calculation of these drugs. These results can be included in the best practice protocol currently adopted in EU studies in order to reduce uncertainty and improve the comparability of results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1648-1659
Number of pages12
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume573
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 15 2016

Fingerprint

Street Drugs
Refining
Wastewater
drug
Pharmacokinetics
Metabolites
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Epidemiology
Biomarkers
N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine
Health
Dronabinol
Methamphetamine
wastewater
Amphetamine
Economics
metabolite
refining
calculation
Costs

Keywords

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Refining correction factors for back-calculation of illicit drug use. / Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 573, 15.12.2016, p. 1648-1659.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0626265099824984b71b92c417675791,
title = "Refining correction factors for back-calculation of illicit drug use",
abstract = "The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors. A wide range of correction factors have been used in different studies and some biases must be expected when comparing results. Most of the correction factors were developed several years ago, so they need to be updated to include the latest information on pharmacokinetics. Moreover, new comprehensive methods to treat data should be adopted. The goal of this study is to refine current correction factors for back-calculation of the most widely used illicit drugs: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The mean percentages of excretion of the parent drugs and their metabolites were calculated for each route of administration, utilizing all accessible pharmacokinetic studies in the literature. This allowed to select the most suitable drug target residue and a refined correction factor was obtained for each substance considering the most frequent route of administration. The refined correction factors we propose can be used in wastewater based epidemiology to standardize the back-calculation of these drugs. These results can be included in the best practice protocol currently adopted in EU studies in order to reduce uncertainty and improve the comparability of results.",
keywords = "Journal Article",
author = "Emma Gracia-Lor and Ettore Zuccato and Sara Castiglioni",
note = "Copyright {\^A}{\circledC} 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.179",
language = "English",
volume = "573",
pages = "1648--1659",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Refining correction factors for back-calculation of illicit drug use

AU - Gracia-Lor, Emma

AU - Zuccato, Ettore

AU - Castiglioni, Sara

N1 - Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PY - 2016/12/15

Y1 - 2016/12/15

N2 - The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors. A wide range of correction factors have been used in different studies and some biases must be expected when comparing results. Most of the correction factors were developed several years ago, so they need to be updated to include the latest information on pharmacokinetics. Moreover, new comprehensive methods to treat data should be adopted. The goal of this study is to refine current correction factors for back-calculation of the most widely used illicit drugs: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The mean percentages of excretion of the parent drugs and their metabolites were calculated for each route of administration, utilizing all accessible pharmacokinetic studies in the literature. This allowed to select the most suitable drug target residue and a refined correction factor was obtained for each substance considering the most frequent route of administration. The refined correction factors we propose can be used in wastewater based epidemiology to standardize the back-calculation of these drugs. These results can be included in the best practice protocol currently adopted in EU studies in order to reduce uncertainty and improve the comparability of results.

AB - The estimation of illicit drugs use through wastewater analysis has become an important issue in the last few years due to their large worldwide consumption, which results in economic, social and health costs. The amounts of urinary biomarkers of illicit drugs (selected drugs or their metabolites) measured in wastewater are used to back-calculate the consumption of a particular drug by the population and to monitor temporal and spatial trends of illicit drug use in a community. The reliability of back-calculation depends on different factors, one being the accuracy of correction factors. A wide range of correction factors have been used in different studies and some biases must be expected when comparing results. Most of the correction factors were developed several years ago, so they need to be updated to include the latest information on pharmacokinetics. Moreover, new comprehensive methods to treat data should be adopted. The goal of this study is to refine current correction factors for back-calculation of the most widely used illicit drugs: amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The mean percentages of excretion of the parent drugs and their metabolites were calculated for each route of administration, utilizing all accessible pharmacokinetic studies in the literature. This allowed to select the most suitable drug target residue and a refined correction factor was obtained for each substance considering the most frequent route of administration. The refined correction factors we propose can be used in wastewater based epidemiology to standardize the back-calculation of these drugs. These results can be included in the best practice protocol currently adopted in EU studies in order to reduce uncertainty and improve the comparability of results.

KW - Journal Article

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.179

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.179

M3 - Article

C2 - 27693156

VL - 573

SP - 1648

EP - 1659

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -