Surgical correction of urethral strictures by substitution urethroplasty — the use of grafts or flaps to correct the urethral narrowing — remains one of the most challenging procedures in urology and is frequently associated with complications, restenosis and poor quality of life for the affected individual. Tissue engineering using different cell types and tissue scaffolds offers a promising alternative for tissue repair and replacement. The past 30 years of tissue engineering has resulted in the development of several therapies that are now in use in the clinic, especially in treating cutaneous, bone and cartilage defects. Advances in tissue engineering for urethral replacement have resulted in several clinical applications that have shown promise but have not yet become the standard of care.
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