AIM: Available evidence on regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in patients with primary aldosteronism after unilateral adrenalectomy is scanty. We performed a systematic meta-analysis of echocardiographic studies to provide an updated and comprehensive information on this issue.
METHODS: The PubMed, OVID-MEDLINE and Cochrane library databases were analyzed to search English-language articles published from 1 January 1990 up to 30 June 2020. Studies were identified by using MeSH terms and crossing the following search items: 'primary aldosteronism' 'Conn's syndrome' 'adrenalectomy', with 'cardiac damage', 'hypertensive heart disease' 'left ventricular mass', 'left ventricular hypertrophy', 'left ventricular hypertrophy regression', 'echocardiography'.
RESULTS: A total of 629 hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism (mean age 49 years, 45% men) were included in 14 studies. Baseline and postintervention pooled mean LV mass/BSA values were 134 ± 4 and 108 ± 3 g/m [standard means difference (SMD) -0.42 ± 0.05, confidence interval (CI) -0.52/-0.32, P < 0.0001]; corresponding values for LV mass/h were 56 ± 2 and 49 ± 1 g/h (SMD -0.45 ± 0.06, CI -0.52/-0.36, P < 0.0001). Adrenalectomy, followed by a marked decrease in blood pressure, was associated with a decrease in relative wall thickness (SMD -0.17 ± 0.06, CI -0.31/-0.03, P < 0.01) as well as in the number of antihypertensive drugs (SMD -0.45 ± 0.04, CI -0.50-0.32, P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggests that adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism exerts a beneficial effect on LV structure and geometry by reducing the burden of LV hypertrophy and LV concentric geometry.