Regulation of HIV expression by viral genes and cytokines

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a leading cause of death among young individuals. As a complex pathogenic retrovirus, HIV is characterized in vitro and in vivo by the ability to establish either a latent or productive infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes (MPs). Viral latency and expression are under the control of both viral genes and several host-related factors. Among these latter, several proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines profoundly affect HIV replication in T lymphocytes and MPs in vitro. Because many of these cytokines have been found to be elevated in HIV-infected individuals, it is likely that they act as regulators of viral expression in vivo. Both viral genes and cytokines regulate transcriptional and posttranscriptional steps in HIV replication. Thus, it is likely that common regulatory pathways between these two distinct classes of regulator molecules will be identified in the near future and will provide potential targets for pharmacologic intervention and treatment of HIV disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-334
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1994


  • cytokines
  • genes
  • HIV
  • latency
  • pathogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

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