Surgical resection is considered the gold standard for the treatment of thymomas no matter what the histological type. Even when complete resection is achieved, however, recurrence of thymoma is not uncommon as it occurs in about 10-29% of patients. Recurrences affect subsequent treatment and final outcome but there is still no general consensus on how to manage them. Complete resection of recurrences should be attempted whenever possible to achieve long-term survival. When complete resection is not feasible, an iterative debulking approach may improve survival by reducing the size of these slow-growing tumors. Currently, a multimodality approach combining radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy with surgery may be considered the best treatment for thymoma recurrences.
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