Relation of Prolonged Pacemaker Dependency After Cardiac Surgery to Mortality

GIROC Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) represents a rare complication after cardiac surgery, with no uniform agreement on timing and no information on follow-up. A multicenter retrospective study was designed to assess pacemaker dependency (PMD) and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery procedures. Between 2004 and 2016, PPI-patients from 18 centers were followed. Time-to-event data were evaluated with semiparametric regression Cox models and semiparametric Fine and Gray model for competing risk framework. Of 859 (0.90%) PPI-patients, 30% were pacemaker independent (PMI) at 6 months. PMD showed higher mortality compared with PMI (10-year survival 80.1% ± 2.6% and 92.2% +2.4%, respectively, log-rank p-value < 0.001) with an unadjusted hazard ratio for death of 0.36 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.65, p< 0.001 favoring PMI) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.45, p< 0.001 with PMD as reference). Crude cumulative incidence function of restored PMI rhythm at follow-up at 6 months, 1 year and 12 years were 30.5% (95% CI 27.3% to 33.7%), 33.7% (95% CI 30.4% to 36.9%) and 37.2% (95% CI 33.8% to 40.6%) respectively. PMI was favored by preoperative sinus rhythm with normal conduction (SR) (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.40, p< 0.001), whereas coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement were independently associated with PMD (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88, p = 0.006 and HR 0.807, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.99, p = 0.047 respectively). Time-to-implantation was not associated with increased rate of PMI. Although 30% of PPI-patients are PMI after 6 months, PMD is associated with higher mortality at long term.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66-71
Number of pages6
JournalThe American Journal of Cardiology
Volume138
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2021

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology
  • Bradycardia/epidemiology
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures
  • Coronary Artery Bypass
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mortality
  • Pacemaker, Artificial
  • Postoperative Complications/epidemiology
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies

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