Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder

Fabrizio Didonna, Roberta Rossi, Clarissa Ferrari, Luca Iani, Laura Pedrini, Nicoletta Rossi, Erica Xodo, Mariangela Lanfredi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. Design and method: One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. Results: The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. Practitioner points: The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive cognitive strategies or symptomatology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Mindfulness
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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