Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder

Fabrizio Didonna, Roberta Rossi, Clarissa Ferrari, Luca Iani, Laura Pedrini, Nicoletta Rossi, Erica Xodo, Mariangela Lanfredi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. Design and method: One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. Results: The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. Practitioner points: The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive cognitive strategies or symptomatology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Mindfulness
Borderline Personality Disorder
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Psychology
Affective Symptoms
Depression
Control Groups
Analysis of Variance
Psychological
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
Dissociative Disorders

Keywords

  • Borderline personality disorder
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Mindfulness
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder",
abstract = "Objectives: To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. Design and method: One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. Results: The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. Practitioner points: The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive cognitive strategies or symptomatology.",
keywords = "Borderline personality disorder, Major depressive disorder, Mindfulness, Obsessive-compulsive disorder",
author = "Fabrizio Didonna and Roberta Rossi and Clarissa Ferrari and Luca Iani and Laura Pedrini and Nicoletta Rossi and Erica Xodo and Mariangela Lanfredi",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/papt.12180",
language = "English",
journal = "Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice",
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T1 - Relations of mindfulness facets with psychological symptoms among individuals with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or borderline personality disorder

AU - Didonna, Fabrizio

AU - Rossi, Roberta

AU - Ferrari, Clarissa

AU - Iani, Luca

AU - Pedrini, Laura

AU - Rossi, Nicoletta

AU - Xodo, Erica

AU - Lanfredi, Mariangela

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Objectives: To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. Design and method: One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. Results: The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. Practitioner points: The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive cognitive strategies or symptomatology.

AB - Objectives: To explore differences in mindfulness facets among patients with a diagnosis of either obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or borderline personality disorder (BPD), and healthy controls (HC), and their associations with clinical features. Design and method: One hundred and fifty-three patients and 50 HC underwent a clinical assessment including measures of mindfulness (Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire - FFMQ), psychopathological symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-R), dissociation (Dissociative Experience Scale), alexithymia (Alexithymia Scale 20), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to assess differences in mindfulness scores and their associations with clinical features. Results: The three diagnostic groups scored lower on all mindfulness facets (apart from FFMQobserving) compared to the HC group. OCD group had a significant higher FFMQ total score (FFMQ-TS) and FFMQacting with awareness compared to the BPD group, and scored higher on FFMQdescribing compared to BPD and MDD groups. The scores in non-judging facet were significantly lower in all the three diagnostic groups compared to the HC group. Interestingly, higher FFMQ-TS was inversely related to all psychological measures, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: Deficits in mindfulness skills were present in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found disease-specific relationships between some mindfulness facets and specific psychological variables. Clinical implications are discussed. Practitioner points: The study showed deficits in mindfulness scores in all diagnostic groups compared to a healthy control group. Overall, mindfulness construct has a significantly negative association with indexes of global distress, dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, and depression. Mindfulness-based interventions in clinical settings should take into account different patterns of mindfulness skills and their impact on disease-specific maladaptive cognitive strategies or symptomatology.

KW - Borderline personality disorder

KW - Major depressive disorder

KW - Mindfulness

KW - Obsessive-compulsive disorder

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