Relationship between albuminuric CKD and diabetic retinopathy in a real-world setting of type 2 diabetes: Findings from No blind study

F. C. Sasso, P. C. Pafundi, A. Gelso, V. Bono, C. Costagliola, R. Marfella, C. Sardu, L. Rinaldi, R. Galiero, C. Acierno, A. Caturano, C. de Sio, L. De Nicola, T. Salvatore, R. Nevola, L. E. Adinolfi, R. Minutolo, D. Giugliano, M. I. Maiorino, G. RiccardiL. Bozzetto, V. Guardasole, R. Di Palo, O. Carbonara, M. Riccio, G. De Simone, L. Lucibelli, S. Masi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and aims: Recently, the albuminocentric view of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been changing. Therefore, the relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has to be addressed according to this new clinical presentation of DKD. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a real-world setting, the correlation DR–DKD in T2DM. Methods and results: A total of 2068 type 2 diabetic patients enrolled in a multicenter cross-sectional study were investigated. Albuminuric subjects were largely prevalent among subjects with DR (p = 0.019). In the whole study population, no difference in albumin excretion rate (AER) was observed between presence/absence of DR; instead, AER was significantly higher among patients with glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD) (p = 0.009), above all in those with CKD and AER ≥0.03 g/24 h (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis confirmed that eGFR (O.R. 0.976; 95% C.I.: 0.960–1.028; p < 0.001) and AER (O.R. 1.249; 95% C.I. 1.001–1.619; p = 0.004) were independently associated with DR and HDL–cholesterol (O.R.: 1.042; 95% C.I.: 1.011–1.120; p = 0.014). Additionally, among patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria, both eGFR and AER significantly varied between those with/without DR (p = 0.012 and p = 0.005, respectively), and this finding was observed among only albuminuric patients. Analogous results were obtained considering DR classification. AER was significantly higher among subjects with either proliferative DR (PDR) or severe nonproliferative DR (NPDR), with regard to mild NPDR (0.498 and 0.938 g/die vs. 0.101 g/die; p < 0.001, respectively). Similar results were obtained in the specular subgroups. Conclusion: In T2DM with DKD, the AER seems to be related to the presence of DR. This association is confirmed above all in those with more severe DR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-930
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • Albumin excretion rate
  • Diabetic kidney disease
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Glomerular filtration rate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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