Relationship between breastfeeding and malocclusion: A systematic review of the literature

Andrea Abate, Davide Cavagnetto, Andrea Fama, Cinzia Maspero, Giampietro Farronato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the available literature about the influence of breastfeeding in primary and mixed dentition on different types of malocclusions. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines were used to perform the present review. The following electronic databases were searched: Pubmed, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), Embase, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science and Ovid. Results: A primary research found a total of 279 articles. Two more papers were also considered from the gray literature. Two hundred sixty-three articles were excluded as they were deemed irrelevant on the basis of: duplicates, title, abstract, methods and/or irrelevant contents. Eighteen papers were selected and included in the qualitative analysis. Conclusions: breastfeeding is a positive factor that seems to reduce the incidence of posterior crossbite, skeletal class II and distoclusion in primary and mixed dentition. A sort of positive relationship between months of breastfeeding and risk reduction seems to exist. More longitudinal research is needed to avoid bias in the results, with data collected prospectively on the months of exclusive breastfeeding, by means of specific questionnaires and successive clinical evaluation of the occlusal condition at the primary dentition, mixed dentition and permanent dentition stages.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3688
Number of pages15
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Breastfeeding
  • Cross-bite
  • Malocclusion
  • Orthodontics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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