Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women

Marcello Maggio, Francesca de Vita, Fulvio Lauretani, Stefania Bandinelli, Richard D. Semba, Benedetta Bartali, Antonio Cherubini, Anne R. Cappola, Gian Paolo Ceda, Luigi Ferrucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6506-6519
Number of pages14
JournalNutrients
Volume7
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 5 2015

Fingerprint

Carotenoids
carotenes
Vitamin A
vitamin A
estradiol
Estradiol
carotenoids
testosterone
menopause
zeaxanthin
lycopene
lutein
body mass index
Testosterone
Lutein
estrogenic properties
liver function
C-reactive protein
Body Mass Index
phytopharmaceuticals

Keywords

  • Carotenoids
  • Elderly
  • Estrogens
  • Retinol
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Maggio, M., de Vita, F., Lauretani, F., Bandinelli, S., Semba, R. D., Bartali, B., ... Ferrucci, L. (2015). Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women. Nutrients, 7(8), 6506-6519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085296

Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women. / Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D.; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 7, No. 8, 05.08.2015, p. 6506-6519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maggio, M, de Vita, F, Lauretani, F, Bandinelli, S, Semba, RD, Bartali, B, Cherubini, A, Cappola, AR, Ceda, GP & Ferrucci, L 2015, 'Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women', Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 6506-6519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085296
Maggio M, de Vita F, Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Semba RD, Bartali B et al. Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 5;7(8):6506-6519. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085296
Maggio, Marcello ; de Vita, Francesca ; Lauretani, Fulvio ; Bandinelli, Stefania ; Semba, Richard D. ; Bartali, Benedetta ; Cherubini, Antonio ; Cappola, Anne R. ; Ceda, Gian Paolo ; Ferrucci, Luigi. / Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women. In: Nutrients. 2015 ; Vol. 7, No. 8. pp. 6506-6519.
@article{4eab89333b63406fa9ff63e48072f410,
title = "Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women",
abstract = "Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.",
keywords = "Carotenoids, Elderly, Estrogens, Retinol, Women",
author = "Marcello Maggio and {de Vita}, Francesca and Fulvio Lauretani and Stefania Bandinelli and Semba, {Richard D.} and Benedetta Bartali and Antonio Cherubini and Cappola, {Anne R.} and Ceda, {Gian Paolo} and Luigi Ferrucci",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
day = "5",
doi = "10.3390/nu7085296",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "6506--6519",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "NLM (Medline)",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relationship between carotenoids, retinol, and estradiol levels in older women

AU - Maggio, Marcello

AU - de Vita, Francesca

AU - Lauretani, Fulvio

AU - Bandinelli, Stefania

AU - Semba, Richard D.

AU - Bartali, Benedetta

AU - Cherubini, Antonio

AU - Cappola, Anne R.

AU - Ceda, Gian Paolo

AU - Ferrucci, Luigi

PY - 2015/8/5

Y1 - 2015/8/5

N2 - Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.

AB - Background. In vitro evidence suggests anti-estrogenic properties for retinol and carotenoids, supporting a chemo-preventive role of these phytochemicals in estrogen-dependent cancers. During aging there are significant reductions in retinol and carotenoid concentrations, whereas estradiol levels decline during menopause and progressively increase from the age of 65. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis of a potential relationship between circulating levels of retinol, carotenoids, and estradiol (E2) in a cohort of late post-menopausal women. Methods. We examined 512 women ≥ 65 years from the InCHIANTI study. Retinol, α-caroten, β-caroten, β-criptoxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene levels were assayed at enrollment (1998-2000) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Estradiol and testosterone (T) levels were assessed by Radioimmunometry (RIA) and testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), as a proxy of aromatase activity, was also calculated. General linear models adjusted for age (Model 1) and further adjusted for other confounders including Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI, smoking, intake of energy, lipids, and vitamin A; C-Reactive Protein, insulin, total cholesterol, liver function, and testosterone (Model 2) were used to investigate the relationship between retinol, carotenoids, and E2 levels. To address the independent relationship between carotenoids and E2 levels, factors significantly associated with E2 in Model 2 were also included in a fully adjusted Model 3. Results. After adjustment for age, α-carotene (β ± SE = −0.01 ± 0.004, p = 0.02) and β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.07 ± 0.02, p = 0.0007) were significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels. α-Carotene was also significantly and positively associated with T/E2 ratio (β ± SE = 0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.01). After adjustment for other confounders (Model 2), the inverse relationship between α-carotene (β ± SE = −1.59 ± 0.61, p = 0.01), β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.29 ± 0.08, p = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.

KW - Carotenoids

KW - Elderly

KW - Estrogens

KW - Retinol

KW - Women

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940849032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940849032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/nu7085296

DO - 10.3390/nu7085296

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84940849032

VL - 7

SP - 6506

EP - 6519

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 8

ER -