Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Western countries and is highly prevalent in patients with kidney disease. Traditional risk factors for CVD often accompany kidney dysfunction, and chronic kidney disease per se is considered an additional risk factor. Risk stratification for CVD remains suboptimal even after the introduction of global risk assessment by various scores. This has prompted the search for novel markers of cardiovascular risk, and several biomarkers have been suggested as candidates, together with C-reactive protein (CRP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between novel biomarkers of vascular inflammation (soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products [sRAGE] and eotaxin-3) with CRP in a population of hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: Plasma sRAGE, high-sensitivity CRP (hs- CRP) and eotaxin-3 were measured in 399 hypertensive patients (265 men, mean age 58 ± 8 years)with diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome or organ damage. Results: Plasma concentrations of sRAGE, eotaxin-3 and hs-CRP were not different between diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Univariate analysis showed that plasma levels of sRAGE and eotaxin-3 were not associated with hs-CRP in either subgroup. Conclusion: Our study confirms the robust and widely studied role of CRP as an important marker of vascular inflammation. We also postulate the possible involvement of sRAGE and eotaxin, 2 novel biomarkers, in CVDs. On the basis of our results, we can put forward the hypotheses that hs-CRP, s-RAGE and eotaxin are reliable but unrelated cardiovascular risk markers.
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