Relationships between enteral nutrition facts and urinary stones in a cohort of pediatric patients in rehabilitation from severe acquired brain injury

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Background & aims: Urolithiasis affects pediatric patients with severe acquired brain injury, in whom the role of several clinical variables and of the presence and composition of enteral nutrition has not been investigated. Methods: Retrospective chart review on 371 pediatric patients with severe acquired brain injury. We used an essential electronic database to check the association between stones and enteral feeding. We then picked at random paper clinical records until we collected 20 and 20 complete records for patients with/without stones, not matched. With that information, we tested the association of stones with: nutrition facts of enteral formulae (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, proteins, vitamin C); bladder dysfunction, urinary infections, catheterisms, tracheostomy, gallstones, way of feeding; blood and urine exams before stones diagnosis; age, type and severity of injury; prior physical activity, relevant drugs. Results: All patients with stones were fed enterally. At univariate statistics they were older, weighed more, received bigger volumes of hydration and nutrition; they had worse GCS, more UTIs and they alone received catheterisms; their nutrition mixes were richer in sodium. In multivariate logistic regression for stone development, UTIs (OR 11.4, 95% C.I. 1.6–83.4) and higher sodium nutrition content (OR 7.5, 95% C.I. 1.6–34.3) were risk factors; higher GCS (OR 0.66, 95% C.I. 0.43–0.99) and higher calcium nutrition content (OR 0.14, 95% C.I. 0.03–0.73) were protective factors. Conclusions: Besides known risk factors for urolithiasis, including UTIs, catheterisms, worse neurological states, also enteral nutrition was a risk factor, particularly with higher sodium and lower calcium contents. Future studies should test the effect of different sodium/calcium nutrition contents on lithogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Nutrition
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Jan 1 2018


  • Brain injury
  • Enteral nutrition
  • Pediatric
  • Rehabilitation
  • Stones

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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