Release of palladium from biomechanical prostheses in body fluids can induce or support PD-specific IFNγ T cell responses and the clinical setting of a palladium hypersensitivity

Antonio Cristaudo, V. Bordignon, F. Petrucci, S. Caimi, M. De Rocco, M. Picardo, P. Cordiali Fei, F. Ensoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The increased use of Palladium (Pd) for biomedical applications, which has more than doubled in the last ten years, appears to be associated with an increased frequency of adverse reactions to Pd. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the implant of a biomechanical apparatus containing Pd and the setting of a hypersensitivity to Pd by determining the levels of the metal released in biological fluids, assessing the effects of Pd on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production and exploring the clinical setting of skin sensitization. Of a total of 3,093 subjects examined in 2006, sensitization to Pd alone or in association with nickel (Ni) was observed in 1.6% and 13.03% of the individuals, respectively. Of these, a group of six subjects positive to Pd and negative to Ni at patch testing were selected on the basis of the oral clinical symptoms in order to measure both the levels of Pd in biological fluids and the degradation of the dental prostheses. Specific Pd measurements were carried out on salivary fluid, urine and serum samples by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. In addition, the degradation of the dental prostheses was assessed by both a "leaching test" and an analysis of the micro morphology of orthodontic prostheses. The induction of IFN-γ production by Pd was assessed in PBMC by the ELISpot assay. Skin sensitization to Pd was evaluated by patch testing and clinical examination. Ten healthy subjects were comparatively tested as controls. We found a specific induction of an IFN-γ response by Pd in PBMC collected from all the subjects positive to Pd at patch testing. On the contrary, control subjects did not show any response to Pd as assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot assay or by skin testing. Remarkably, the levels of Pd in all biological samples (saliva, sera, urine) were significantly higher in Pd-sensitized patients than in those collected from controls, reaching the highest concentrations in the urine. The leaching studies gave additional evidence that the dental appliances can release measurable levels of Pd in saliva. Oral clinical symptoms in patients with Pd dental prostheses were associated with measurable levels of Pd in the biological fluids, the induction of Pd-specific IFN-γ responses in PBMC and the clinical evidence of skin sensitization to Pd. These data suggest that dental appliances may represent an active source of Pd in the body, and this, in turn, can favour the clinical setting of a hypersensitivity to this metal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)605-614
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Volume22
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2009

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • Body fluids
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Dental prostheses
  • ELISpot assay
  • Palladium
  • Patch test
  • Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

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