Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are clusters of capillaries in the brain that may cause focal deficits or seizures in affected patients. They occur in both sporadic and inherited autosomal dominant form. Germline mutations in CCM1, CCM2 and CCM3 were identified in familial cases. Over the past 13years we performed sequencing and MLPA of the CCM genes in all sporadic and familial CCM cases coming from some hospital clinics of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Messina and other Italian cities. Our results showed that CCM sporadic patients, negative for previously reported CCM gene causative mutations, always carried known CCM polymorphisms. Previously, we reported polymorphisms in CCM2 gene associated with an increase in risk for CCM. Here, we undertook a case-control study to investigate the possible association of others polymorphisms (c.485+65 C/G, c.989+63 C/G, c.1980 A/G in CCM1 gene, c.472+127 C/T in CCM2 and c.150 G/A in CCM3) with CCMs. The five polymorphisms were characterized in 64 sporadic patients and in 90 healthy controls by ASO-PCR. Statistically significant differences in frequencies between patients and controls were found for c.485+65C/G, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T polymorphisms. For c.485+65C/G polymorphism, a higher frequency of mutated allele (G) was found in patients group (9%) than in controls (2%) (p=0.0041); for c.1980 A/G polymorphism, we found a frequency of mutated allele (G) higher in the control group (25%) compared to that of patients (8%) (p=0.0396). Same trend was observed for c.472+127C/T polymorphism (T allele frequency=34% and 6% in control group and patients, respectively; p=0.0001). Polymorphisms c.485+65C/G, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T were associated with an increased risk of CCM as indicated by odds ratio values. Furthermore, c.1980 A/G and c.472+127C/T polymorphisms were associated with less severe CCM symptomatology. Identification of these polymorphisms in CCM sporadic patient may represent a useful tool for clinicians to determine prognosis, scheduled periodic checks and appropriate treatment strategy.
- Journal Article