Reliability and validity of the Italian nose obstruction symptom evaluation (I-NOSE) scale.

Francesco Mozzanica, Emanuele Urbani, Murat Atac, Gianluca Scottà, Ketty Luciano, Chiara Bulgheroni, Valeria De Cristofaro, Roberto Gera, Antonio Schindler, Francesco Ottaviani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The NOSE scale is a questionnaire assessing QOL related with nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the NOSE scale into Italian (I-NOSE). Prospective instrument validation study. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation were accomplished. Cronbach α was used to test internal consistency in 116 patients complaining nasal obstruction and 232 asymptomatic subjects. Pearson and ICC tests were used for test-retest reliability analysis. Normative data were gathered from the 232 asymptomatic subjects. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the I-NOSE scores in patients and asymptomatic subjects and in 40 patients before and after septoplasty. I-NOSE scores obtained in 60 patients were correlated with rhinomanometric results and with the score of a visual analog scale (VAS) measuring the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction. Good internal consistency and good test-retest reliability were found. I-NOSE mean score of the normal cohort was 12.1 ± 13.2. Asymptomatic subjects scored lower than patients with nasal obstruction (p = 0.001). Positive correlations between I-NOSE scores and VAS and rhinomanometric results were found. The mean I-NOSE score improved from 64.4 ± 23.6 to 22.1 ± 13.5 after septoplasty (p <0.001). The I-NOSE scale is a reliable, valid, self-administered, symptom-specific questionnaire; its application is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3087-3094
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Reliability and validity of the Italian nose obstruction symptom evaluation (I-NOSE) scale.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this