Reliability, validity and normative data of the Italian version of the Bus Story test

F Mozzanica, R Salvadorini, E. Sai, Raffaella Pozzoli, Patrizia Maruzzi, Letizia Scarponi, Maria Rosaria Barillari, E Spada, Federico Ambrogi, A. Schindler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the reliability and the validity of the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST), providing normative data in Italian children.

METHODS: A total of 552 normally developing children (278 males and 274 females) aged 3; 6 to 9; 0 years, were enrolled. Test-retest, intra- and inter-rater reliability were analysed on a sample of respectively 145, 178 and 178 children. Normative data were gathered from all the enrolled children and estimate centiles according to the CG-LMS method provided. The children were divided into 11 age classes of six months each; percentile scores and standard error measurement were analysed in children from age class 4; 0-4; 5 years to age class 8; 6-811 years. Age effects on I-BST were analysed.

RESULTS: Results showed high test-retest, intra- and inter-rater reliability scores. A significant age effect on I-BST scores emerged from the ANOVA test analysis; in particular, as age increases, so do I-BST scores.

CONCLUSION: The I-BST is a reliable and valid tool. The availability of normative data for Italian speaking children may help clinicians during clinical assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cognition
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Language Development
  • Male
  • Memory
  • Narration
  • Psychometrics
  • Reference Values
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Translations
  • Vocabulary
  • Journal Article


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