The term acute heart failure (AHF) refers to a clinical syndrome with typical symptoms and signs, in which a structural or functional heart abnormality leads to defective oxygen delivery. The term cardiorenal syndrome has been proposed to outline the strict interplay between cardiac and renal function. In the setting of acute cardiac decompensation, acute kidney injury (AKI) is generally referred to as cardiorenal syndrome type 1. In this review, we summarize the fundamental pathophysiological aspects of both AHF and AHF-related AKI. We also review the latest therapeutic options, including both pharmacological ones, such as loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics and vaptans, and non-pharmacological ones, such as ultrafiltration, and their impact on patients’ outcome. We discuss the pathophysiology of diuretic resistance, a common occurrence in these patients, reviewing the available strategies to treat it and highlighting how a close collaboration between cardiologists and nephrologists is frequently crucial for the management of this complication. Finally, we discuss three new promising non-pharmacological tools for the prevention of AHF recurrence, including two methods that exploit sympathetic denervation and one technique that acts by increasing vagal tone.
- Cardiorenal syndrome
- Diuretic resistance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine