Renal protection in cardiovascular surgery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most relevant complications after major surgery and is a predictor of mortality. In Western countries, patients at risk of developing AKI are mainly those undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. In this category of patients, AKI depends on a multifactorial etiology, including low ejection fraction, use of contrast media, hemodynamic instability, cardiopulmonary bypass, and bleeding. Despite a growing body of literature, the treatment of renal failure remains mainly supportive (e.g. hemodynamic stability, fluid management, and avoidance of further damage); therefore, the management of patients at risk of AKI should aim at prevention of renal damage. Thus, the present narrative review analyzes the pathophysiology underlying AKI (specifically in high-risk patients), the preoperative risk factors that predispose to renal damage, early biomarkers related to AKI, and the strategies employed for perioperative renal protection. The most recent scientific evidence has been considered, and whenever conflicting data were encountered possible suggestions are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberF1000 Faculty Rev-331
JournalF1000Research
Volume5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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