Background: Repeated resection of colorectal cancer pulmonary metastasis is associated with long-term survival. Nevertheless, very limited data addressing the best candidates for repeated pulmonary resection is available. Patients and Methods: We searched the PubMed database for retrospective studies evaluating lung metastasectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We included studies with available data about repeated pulmonary metastasectomy. Potential prognostic factors were analyzed for possible impact on survival following the second metastasectomy through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Between 1983 and 2008, 944 lung metastasectomies were carried out on 759 patients. Of those, 148 patients had a second metastasectomy. The 5-year survival rate was 52 % for patients who had 1 metastasectomy and 57.9 % from the second metastasectomy for patients who had repeated resection. More than 2 metastatic pulmonary nodules and maximum diameter of largest pulmonary nodule ≥3 cm were the only independent factors associated with inferior survival following repeated pulmonary resection. Conclusions: In selected patients with metastatic CRC, repeated pulmonary metastasectomy offers an excellent chance for long-term survival and is associated with a quite low operative mortality. Patients with more than 2 metastatic nodules and a maximum diameter of the largest metastatic lung nodule of ≥3 cm have a significantly inferior survival.
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