Reproductive life milestone in women with Parkinson's disease

Emilia Martignoni, Rossella E. Nappi, Antonietta Citterio, Daniela Calandrella, Roberta Zangaglia, Francesca Mancini, Elisabetta Corengia, Giulio Riboldazzi, Franco Polatti, Giuseppe Nappi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reproductive life milestones were studied in 150 unselected women with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and in 300 postmenopausal healthy women (PM). Duration of reproductive life was found to be similar in the two groups. The women with PD reported significantly more premenstrual symptoms, fewer deliveries and abortions, and less use of contraception. Time and mode of menopause onset were similar in PD and PM, but the PD women reported significantly more hot flushes, less insomnia, depression, urinary incontinence and dyspareunia, and less recourse to hormone replacement therapy than the PM women. Women diagnosed with PD before the menopause reported more premenstrual symptoms and contraceptive use compared with those with postmenopausal PD onset, as well as a premenstrual worsening of PD symptoms in more than 50% of cases. Our data indicate poor adaptation of neuronal pathways to the hormonal fluctuations of reproductive life in women with PD, supporting the existence of a qualitative relationship between PD and reproductive events.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-217
Number of pages7
JournalFunctional Neurology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2003


  • Contraception
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Menopause
  • Menstruation
  • Parity
  • Parkinson's disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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