Purpose: To evaluate the use of parallel imaging (sensitivity encoding [SENSE]) to improve spatial resolution and achieve sub-second temporal resolution in fluoroscopic contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance digital subtraction angiography (MR-DSA). Materials and Methods: A MR-DSA sequence was optimized on a 3-T scanner with respect to sampling bandwidth and SENSE acceleration factor subject to the constraints of half-second acquisition time and 0.6 × 1.2 mm in-plane resolution. MR-DSA with and without SENSE acceleration was then evaluated in patients with arterio-venous malformations (AVMs). Results: Consistent with previously reported results and theory, SENSE factors greater than two and increasing sampling bandwidth both led to increasing image noise. Compared to lower resolution MR-DSA images with similar temporal resolution, the SENSE accelerated sequence provided better spatial resolution without notable changes in the contrast enhancement of the vascular territories of the AVMs but was hampered somewhat in the late venous phases by a reconstruction artifact. Conclusion: SENSE acceleration of MR-DSA by a factor of two allows improved temporal or spatial resolution without significant loss of image quality. Signal-to-noise degradation associated with higher SENSE acceleration factors are likely to necessitate other approaches to further improving resolution in MR-DSA. Clinically, SENSE accelerated MR-DSA improves the non-invasive pre- and postoperative depiction of AVM flow dynamics.
- Arterio-venous malformations
- Magnetic resonance angiography
- Parallel imaging
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology