Resorbable glass-ceramic phosphate-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: Synthesis, properties, and in vitro effects on human marrow stromal cells

Chiara Vitale-Brovarone, Gabriela Ciapetti, Elisa Leonardi, Nicola Baldini, Oana Bretcanu, Enrica Verné, Francesco Baino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Highly porous bioresorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds were prepared via sponge replication method by using an open-cell polyurethane foam as a template and phosphate-based glass powders. The glass, belonging to the P 2O 5-SiO 2-CaO-MgO-Na 2O-K 2O system, was synthesized by a melting-quenching route, ground, and sieved to obtain powders with a grain size of less than 30m. A slurry containing glass powders, polyvinyl alcohol, and water was prepared to coat the polymeric template. The removal of the polymer and the sintering of the glass powders were performed by a thermal treatment, in order to obtain an inorganic replica of the template structure. The structure and properties of the scaffold were investigated from structural, morphological, and mechanical viewpoints by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, density measurements, image analysis, and compressive tests. The scaffolds exhibited a trabecular architecture that closely mimics the structure of a natural spongy bone. The solubility of the porous structures was assessed by soaking the samples in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl for different time frames and then by assessing the scaffold weight loss. As far as the test in SBF is concerned, the nucleation of hydroxyapatite on the scaffold trabeculae demonstrates the bioactivity of the material. Biological tests were carried out using human bone marrow stromal cells to test the osteoconductivity of the material. The cells adhered to the scaffold struts and were metabolically active; it was found that cell differentiation over proliferation occurred. Therefore, the produced scaffolds, being biocompatible, bioactive, resorbable, and structurally similar to a spongy bone, can be proposed as interesting candidates for bone grafting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)465-489
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Biomaterials Applications
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011

Keywords

  • bone graft
  • bone marrow cells
  • glass-ceramic
  • phosphate glass
  • scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials

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